Bitumen - is product of black color with a density of about one, with a low thermal and electrical conductivity. It perfectly resists various chemicals, water, and gas-tight, resistant to different types of radiation and prolonged heat impact action. It is such a valuable quality of bitumen combined with low cost and mass production have made them indispensable in many areas of the economy.
Being amorphous material, bitumen has melting point. The transition from the solid to the liquid state is characterized by a softening temperature, which is usually determined on the "ring-and-ball." The hardness of bitumen is estimated by measuring the penetration and ductility - elongation (ductility).